Monday, June 1, 2020

Love and Madness - Literature Essay Samples

Love is inherently linked with madness. All of history has proved love to be not only blind but deaf, and yet it stubbornly persists as one of the most defining characteristics of the human condition. It certainly perseveres throughout Junot Dà ­az’s novel The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, defying reason, rhyme, and any and all pretenses at sanity. Love in The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao is akin to a disease, a disease that none of the characters fully recover from. In his role as narrator Yunior endeavours to firmly impress upon readers that the troubles that befall the characters, particularly Oscar, in the novel all relate back to the historical curse of fukà º, the supernatural power believed to haunt the De Leà ²n family. However, the real curse of the De Leà ²n family is not the supernatural fukà º, invoked by people when they cannot explain why really terrible, and really wonderful, things happen in the world; it is love, or the perversion of it that Oscar and the De Leà ²ns understand it to be. Dà ­az refutes the notion of the supernatural by illustrating Oscar as a character consumed by love, he quite literally goes mad at the prospect of it, and in his repeated doing of so he perpetuates his family’s individualized fukà º. Throughout The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, Oscar De Leà ²n is revealed to be irrevocably in love with false understandings of what love truly is and means. Oscar is addicted to imagining himself as being in love with whatever girl acknowledges him, whether it be Ana, Jenni, or the miscellany of girls he passes on the street. â€Å"His affection—that gravitational mass of love, fear, longing, desire, and lust that he directed at any and every girl in his vicinity without regard to looks, age, or availability—broke his heart each and every day† (Dà ­az 23). Oscar does not fall in love, he falls into lust, physical lust, but also lust for companionship, for something, anything, that will make him feel like less of an outsider, an other. These are not in themselves desires that Oscar should be blamed for or have held against him, or have destroy him; however, they become such by means of the enormity with which he reacts to not fulfilling them. During his Ana stage, (Ana who is not so much his first love as his first rejection, as that is the pattern of most of his (brief) life), Oscar actually waits outside her boyfriend’s apartment with a gun, prepared to shoot him. Yes, Manny is an abuser and a pervert, for dating a 13 year old when he is 24, and he may deserve some kind of comeuppance, but nevertheless, Oscar looks at his obsession with Ana and what she can do for him, make him feel both physically and emotionally, as the equivalent of love, and that is wrong. Oscar has a knack for latching on to girls he adores, in his own way, but who treat him, at best, like a friend to be pitied, and when the final rejection comes Oscar snaps. Jenni is an extreme example, as it is her rejection that drives Oscar to attempt suicide. Her nickname of ‘La Jablesse’ suggests something devilish about her while adding a sense of diabolical intent to her relationship with Oscar, and this is reflective how all of the other women in the novel lure Oscar to self-destruction, the same destruction Yunior confuses with fukà º.Oscar believes Ybà ³n to be the one true love of his life, as the beginning of his real life, but in actuality his relationship proves that he once again fails to accurately appraise the meaning of love. Of his relationship with Ybà ³n Oscar says â€Å"Love was a rare thing, easily confused with a million other things, and if anybody knew this to be true it was him† (321). This is true, and Oscar may know it well, but tha t does not mean he actually knows what love is. Oscar loves selfishly, greedily, and blindly. Oscar looks at his willingness to die for his love of Ybà ³n as the ultimate unparalleled proof of devotion, of promise, and in itself this could certainly be such. However, Oscar does not just die for his version of the sanctity and power of love; he knowingly and repeatedly endangers the life of Ybà ³n. She asks him again and again to leave her alone for both of their sakes and yet he refuses to even consider listening to her, in the so-called justifiable name of true love. This love, this adoration, earns Ybà ³n a .44 magnum in her vagina while the capità ¡n asks her who she really loves. In addition to his self-centered, juvenile understanding of love, Oscar cannot give any guarantees to Ybà ³n. Love is supposed to be a guarantee, something that can be counted on no matter what, where, when, or why, but nothing in Oscar’s turbulent attempts at romance suggest an attention span. Perhaps if any of his targets, as this is what the women he loves are to him, had demonstrated reciprocation Oscar would be able to provide evidence of prolonged romantic interests, but for someone who loves as easily and blindly as Oscar this is unlikely. Oscar can offer no guarantees, and had he not imperiled Ybà ³n and gotten himself killed in his selfish, deliberate perversion of love, Oscar would probably have lived to see that in time his love for Ybà ³n too would have passed, onto some girl he made fleeting eye contact with on any given street. In The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, Lola says that â€Å"If [one were to] ask [her she does not] think there are any such things as curses. [She] thinks there is only life. Thats enough† (205). This is certainly the case for Oscar, who does not die at the hands of fukà º. Oscar dies at his own hands, at what is essentially his own behest, because he is not capable of understanding love. His love is sick, desperate and needy, unknowing, and dangerous to all parties involved. Yunior confuses the misfortune and death of Oscar as being caused by the supernatural, but in reality Oscar causes his own destruction. He does not truly love any of the girls he goes mad over, he does not know how, and his desperation is the true curse.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

What´s Hydraulic Fracturing - 763 Words

Hydraulic Fracturing is a process/technique that was produced around the 1940s and it is a way in which we can allow natural gas and oil to be able to move around from the rock pores in which they are trapped inside of, to allow this to move to a producing well. Hydraulic Fracturing is used because it recovers energy resources as well as producing great amounts of hydrocarbons from each well. If we use this process, this will mean that we no longer would need to use the drilling process for oil and gas, this would mean that there would be less waste and other technical difficulties that come with the process of drilling for oil and gas. There are a some commonly used chemicals in hydraulic fracturing process. Such as Methanol, which is a very dangerous chemical. It pollutes the air and is also a regulation for the Safe Drinking Water Act. Some other widely chemicals used in the hydraulic fracturing process is isopropyl alcohol that was used for many products. We also have the ethylene glycol which was used in 119 products ( You also have a chemical called crystalline silica which was present in about 207 products. Some land owners are not well informed about the possible consequences that come with hydro fracturing in their lands. Lots of gas companies do not make them aware of potential risks or benefits of this process. This process is now taking place in states like New York and Ohio, and theShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Hydraulic Fracturing On The Environment1622 Words   |  7 Pages Hydraulic Fracturing is a process which uses water to crack rock formations as a means to extract natural gas or oil. This method is highly debatable as to whether it uses too much water in areas that have fragile water sources as well as whether the process contaminates surrounding water sources. The State of Texas is a hotspot for hydraulic fracturing because of the amount of shale formations which can produce oil and natural gas. Texas is a dry state which often experiences severe droughts. ThereRead MoreLaws 310 Course Project1187 Words   |  5 PagesTHE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT Hydraulic Fracturing 10/12/2013 â€Æ' TABLE OF CONTENTS What is Hydraulic Fracturing 2 Enivromental Issues 2 Water Contamination 2 Management of Waste Water 3 Air Quality Issues 3 Fracking Chemicals 3 State and Federal Laws 4 Federal Regulations 4 State Regulations 4 U.S. Energy Needs 5 Conclusion 5 Referrence Page 6 â€Æ' Hydraulic Fracturing What is hydraulic fracturing or fracking, and is it safe for our environment? What types of environmental issuesRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing, or â€Å"Fracking†, is questionable in many people’s eyes. The â€Å"Why† â€Å"How†1700 Words   |  7 PagesHydraulic Fracturing, or â€Å"Fracking†, is questionable in many people’s eyes. The â€Å"Why† â€Å"How† comes up often when hydraulic fracturing is mentioned. Fracking has been tested and proven to be an environmental safe process. Introduced in the 1940’s, hydraulic fracturing has discovered a considerable amount of oil and clean-burning natural gas from underneath the earth’s surface. Fracking contributes in providing well-needed resources from the earth’s surface to increase our country’s energy securityRead MoreThe Possible Effects of Hydraulic Fracturing in Newfoundland1278 Words   |  5 Pagesessay will examine the possible effects of hydraulic fracturing in Newfoundland. Hydraulic fracturing is the process of retrieving natural gas from the earth by injecting fluid into a borehole and pressurizing it, creating cracks in the rock. hydraulic fracturing fluid is made up of small beads of sand or ceramic, which prop open the cracks in the rock, as well as water and chemicals, which help suspend the proppants (sand or ceramic). The hydraulic fracturing fluid is pressurized, allowing the proppantsRead MoreThe Argument Against Hydraulic Fracturing1378 Words   |  6 PagesArgument against Hydraulic Fracturing Hydraulic Fracturing is the process in which a borehole is made on earth, and the Shale rock is broken in order to harvest natural gas by drilling pipes vertically,and horizontally.Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking draws in the addition of more than a million gallons of water,sand,and chemicals being added below earth s surface at a high pressure down a vertical,and horizontal pipeline.As the mixture travels down the pipe it breaks the Shale rock realisingRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing And Its Effects1500 Words   |  6 Pagesthe odor. Distraught, the mother towel dries her child in a final attempt to spare his skin, but does not know what else to do. This sounds like a horror situation that would only happen in a country that was not very developed. However, situations like this one are plausible in America, partially due to hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing is a process which began in the late 1940’s as an experiment and has since expanded into a global method to efficiently extract natural gases. It has ledRead MoreThe Issue Of Hydraulic Fracturing1444 Words   |  6 PagesHydraulic Fracturing One of the hottest new issues that has arisen to the forefront of the battle between environmentalists and the energy industry, where the health of future generations is set against our energy needs and economic growth, is the issue of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking as it is colloquially called. America’s new-found energy independence has been made possible using technology that was only a pipe dream a mere decade ago, slashing the disparity between net imports versus exportsRead MoreTypes Of Wells Can Be Used For Drill Holes Deep Into The Earth1566 Words   |  7 Pagesroofs and was being absorbed into the worker s exposed skin. The soil under the plastic was also absorbing the leakage too. This is what could happen when a valve broke in the open position. In the United States, there are three types of oil and gas wells; horizontal, directional, and vertical. All three types of wells can be fracked. Horizontal drilling is normally used to drill holes deep into the earth, for the hydraulic fracturing process. Fracturing or â€Å"fracking† uses a high pressure water mixtureRead MoreSources Of Oil And Gas Essay1486 Words   |  6 PagesInformation mainly from ‘Shale gas extraction in UK: review of hydraulic fracturing’ Royal Society Royal Academy of Engineering, 2012] 1.2 Extraction of Shale gas: Shale gas remains adsorbed in the laminations, fractures and in the pore spaces. Shale acts as the source, reservoir and the cap rock for natural gas. Since it is characterized by low permeability producibility hence it is extracted through fractured horizontal well. Hydraulic fracturing or â€Å"fracking† is used to enhance the permeability of shaleRead MoreThe Crisis Of The Fukushima Nuclear Plant After An Earthquake1566 Words   |  7 Pagessuccessful development techniques of hydraulic fracturing has showcased as a solution to solve these problems altogether. We now gain access to the 100 years worth of energy in the form of natural gas underneath the surface of our backyard. The belief that these domestic natural gas deposits will provide us time and help build a bridge to cleaner energy for the future. However, people do not understand what hydraulic fracturing is or how it works. â€Å"Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, forces natural

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Lincoln The New Political Era Essay - 2479 Words

Lincoln: The New Political Era Abraham Lincoln laid down a road of equality and freedom for slaves and people of the 1800s as well as having a major impact on society and government; Abraham Lincoln s engagement with the public people skyrocketed his career as being a president and a suitable leader to the people of the United States of America during the mid 1800s. Born on February 12th, 1809 in Hardin County, Kentucky, Abraham Lincoln in his later years would be known as one of the most authoritative leaders of all time. Abraham Lincoln was born into a poverty-stricken and illiterate family in the backwoods of Kentucky. Although the greater part of his family was uneducated, Lincoln strived to better educate himself regardless of his families finical and social situation. As a juvenile, Lincoln stood out among many. In his later years, Lincoln found himself in the town of New Salem with a job at a general store. Lincoln used many of his survival skills learned as a child, such as the capability to split trees and performing other hard work, to create a platform for himself and made a name for himself among the small community of New Salem. At age twenty-three young Lincoln started his political career. The same year he moved to Salem, he began to run for the general assembly of New Salem. Soon after his announcement of running for general assembly, the infamous Black Hawk War began. While Lincoln was still in the running for general assembly, in place of campaigning,Show MoreRelatedHow Does One Achieve Presidential Greatness?820 Words   |  4 Pagesmust create a new â€Å"political order† in order to achieve greatness. In other words, he must create new institutions, interests, and ideas or reform the current institutions, interests and ideas that shape a political era. (Morone and Kersh 2013) . Immediately, the president must clarify the vision and direction the era his presidency will usher in. According to the Morone President Washington, set the bar for establishing greatness in the presidency â€Å"He [Washington] embodied the new nation. He championedRead MoreAbraham Lincoln in the Post-Heroic Era978 Words   |  4 PagesAbraham Lincoln Nancy Lincoln gave birth to a son in Kentucky; the year of his birth was 1809. Her son was named as Abraham Lincoln. The vicinity of Ohio River was the place where they shifted when they faced some property issues. A disease started transmitting through milk in Indiana where they lived and due to that disease Abrahams mother died in 1819. Abraham didnt get any proper education in the early stages of his life due to their inadequacy to pay for the expenses of education. DespiteRead MoreReconstruction Era1650 Words   |  7 PagesReconstruction 1 The Reconstruction Era Jessica Onken American History Since 1865 Professor Tim Johnston August 2, 2010 Reconstruction 2 The Reconstruction Era The reconstruction era was a difficult time for the African American slaves from 1865 to 1877 because the slaves were freed and there were no jobs for them, had very little or no education, and had very limited opportunity in the south. Reconstruction was one of the most critical periods in American History. The CivilRead MoreHow Did The Radical Republican s Rise For The Failure Of The Post Civil War Reconstruction?1619 Words   |  7 Pagesreconstruction? The time between 1863, when Lincoln passed the ten percent act, until the year 1877, when reconstruction was officially ended, will be evaluated with information provided by the sources. The investigation will specifically look to how the Lincoln assassination allowed for the rise in the Radical Republican Party from 1866 to 1868 and the party’s effect on reconstruction acts leading to the failure of the post-civil war reconstruction era. Eric Foner’s novel Reconstruction: AmericaRead MoreAbraham Lincoln : A Man Of Courage1459 Words   |  6 PagesAbraham Lincoln â€Å"Courage is not the absence of fear. It is going forward with the face of fear† - Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln was a man of courage who many looked up to during the civil war. Lincoln was born in Hodgenville, Kentucky, and grew up western frontier in Kentucky and Indiana. He was self-educated and became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader and member of Illinois House of Representative, which he served for twelve year. Lincoln got a sense of what it took to be a leader of theRead MoreThe Slavery Of The Black Race1508 Words   |  7 Pageshe anticipated the racial blend will extend Negros race everywhere throughout the country. Additionally, they will be more acknowledgeable of their rights and battles will occur between those two races. Moreover, the bondage will be passed from one era to the next residual disgrace and disrespect to the Black race and hate to the white. At long last, Tocqueville proposed that intermix of those two races, generally, the separation of t he Negros will bring a contention where one race will survive. AtRead MoreAbraham Lincoln : The Goals Of Douglass And Lincoln943 Words   |  4 PagesThe Goals of Douglass and Lincoln During the time of Reconstruction, which was from 1865-1877, president Abraham Lincoln and abolitionist Frederick Douglass had many goals that they wanted to achieve during the Reconstruction period. They shared a common goal of trying to abolish slavery, however, Douglass and Lincoln did have different goals as well that they believed were priorities. Douglass’s goal was to have equality and equal rights among the races and Lincoln’s main goal was to unify theRead MoreThe Legacy Of Abraham Lincoln Essay944 Words   |  4 PagesAbraham Lincoln The President that was murdered because he forever freed the slaves in 1863 is how many people in today’s society remember the sixteenth president of the United States of America. President Abraham Lincoln leadership qualities and accomplishments go far beyond that life altering proclamation. American educator Dr. Stephen Covey states, â€Å"Always surround yourself with people who are even more talented and competent than you† This quote is relevant to the leadership skills and qualitiesRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War970 Words   |  4 Pagesfarther south, thus supporting the Kansas-Nebraska Act, as it went along with their political agenda of the time. As the Kansas-Nebraska passed in 1854, it added to the fury of the North, while the act contradicted the previously passed Missouri Compromise of 1850, which had temporarily satisfied the North and abolished slavery above the northern latitude line of 36 °30 . Before physical conflict had even begun, the New York Tribune wrote We are two peoples. We are a people of freedom and a people forRead MoreReconstruction: Eric Foner1673 Words   |  7 PagesAmerican historian, Eric Foner, is a professor at Columbia University. He has written many books concerning the Civil War and Reconstruction eras. Eric Foner’s Reconstruction theory is correct in stating that, despite the northern Radical Republicans best efforts, the southern whites were more so focused on recreating the past society instead of renovating a new society. It can be argued, however, that reconstruction was a success and the South made an attempt to change, but was burdened with the

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Animal Testing in the United States free essay sample

Examines the procedures and rules governing animal testing, reviews alternative methods and looks at the history of the animal rights movement. This paper covers the history of the modern animal rights movement and examines and evaluates the current federal legislation regarding all aspects of animal testing and treatment of laboratory animals. Individual animal tests and alternatives to using laboratory animals are discussed from different viewpoints. Reasons for either supporting or condemning many different types of animal tests in the areas of medicine, cosmetics and scientific research are looked at. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal Testing in the United States or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This paper covers the history of the modern animal rights movement and examines and evaluates the current federal legislation regarding all aspects of animal testing and treatment of laboratory animals. Individual animal tests and alternatives to using laboratory animals are discussed from different viewpoints. Reasons for either supporting or condemning many different types of animal tests in the areas of medicine, cosmetics and scientific research are looked at.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Logitechs Global Distribution and Logistics Analysis Essay Example

Logitechs Global Distribution and Logistics Analysis Paper Chapter 1. Company Introduction Logitech is a world leader in personal peripherals, driving innovation in PC navigation, Internet communications, digital music, home-entertainment control, gaming and wireless devices (PriceGrabber. com 2007). The companys products combine essential core technologies, continuing innovation, award-winning industrial design and excellent price performance. Logitech International is a Swiss public company traded on the SWX Swiss Exchange under the symbol LOGN and on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol LOGI. In January 2007, Logitech was added to the NASDAQ-100 Index ® (Logitech 2008). Logitechs origins lie in the OEM sector, which remains an important part of its business, and represented 11. 6 percent of the companys total sales in Fiscal 2006 (PriceGrabber. com 2007). To meet the demands of its OEM customer base, which includes most of the worlds largest PC manufacturers, Logitech offers high-volume manufacturing with focused quality control, worldwide distribution and logistics, and the ability to leverage its infrastructure under changing demand conditions. Logitech continues to broaden its product offering and its presence in the retail sector. This is fueled by a trend among consumers to enhance their basic PC systems with more fully featured personal peripherals that add functionality and cordless freedom to their desktops. They are also purchasing supplementary devices designed for new applications and specific purposes such as gaming, multimedia, or audio and visual communication over the Internet. Further, Logitechs retail business includes personal peripherals for platforms beyond the PC, such as gaming consoles, portable music players, mobile phones and home-entertainment systems. We will write a custom essay sample on Logitechs Global Distribution and Logistics Analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Logitechs Global Distribution and Logistics Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Logitechs Global Distribution and Logistics Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Today, Logitechs retail business accounts for 88. 4 percent of its revenue (Logitech 2008). To provide the market with a broadening array of best-of-category products, Logitechs business model calls for supplementing its internal engineering and manufacturing strength with additional products and technologies through a combination of strategic acquisitions and industry partnerships (PriceGrabber. com 2007). Chapter 2. Supply Chain Logitech is sensitive to the trend in IT industry. Customers are always long for updating their PCs accessories and purchasing stylish and personalized IT products. By this reason, Logitech has put a lots effort in fastening the launch of new products to the market to satisfy the needs and trends. Nevertheless, a well-operating supply chain is the conjunction to the successful achievement. The success of Logitech is to convert a simple and single-product supply chain into a complex and multi-product supply chain under harmlessness to its sales and to fasten the product delivery. However, behind this steady the deployment of its sources efficiently is the key, and Logitech has still insisted this merit. The development of Logitech starts from a simple and inelastic supply chain. In the beginning of ‘80s, Logitech started running the mouse-manufacturing business. The operation was running excellently with a simple supply chain. The single-product supply chain was supported by its manufactory in Suzhou, China and served the worldwide market. Although it was not efficient, it was enough for Logitech to cope with orders. Nowadays a simple supply chain can’t meet the requirements of Logitech anymore which has developed more and more product lines and has become a multi-product company. In 2005 Logitech have 135 kinds of PCs peripheral products in the market. Except for manufacturing over 6 million mice in a year, Logitech has also produced numerous peripheral products. In this case, the management of the simple supply chain has been no longer realistic. A more elastic supply chain which is able to deal with the changes of demand and compete against the pressure from competitors is what Logitech needs. Therefore, Logitech addressed itself to build the high visibility of its supplier-web, production and transportation transaction. However, the change resulted in a plentiful harvest. In the 2005 annual report, it shows a +13% growth in net income which reached 1. 93 billion USD. In spite of the markup of fuel and raw materials, the gross profit margin improved from 32% to 34%. The sales volume and net income of 1st quarter in 2005 raised 26% and 19%. This record was the fastest growth among previous 3 years. An elastic supply chain The supply chain of Logitech In the past, Logitech completed all the manufacturing process internally. However , in order to deal with the expansion of the transaction, Logitech started to outsource its manufacturing business, for instance, the acquisition of Labtec in 2001(Logitech 2008) whose products are mostly produced by ODM is one of them. Presently Logitech has maintained its 50% manufacturing business by it own and has outsourced other 50% to ODM. The emergence of ODM seems to prolong the supply chain. However, it didn’t reduce the performance of the supply chain. Conversely, it helped Logitech expanding its business to many new markets. In order to build a more elastic supply chain, the first step for Logitech is to fasten the reaction of the Suzhou manufactory to the orders. Logitech has founded 6 technology centers in worldwide which locate in Switzerland, U. S. , Canada, Taiwan, and Suzhou, China. By absorbing the technology forte of each country, the worldwide technology synergy worked very well. However, operating the connection between worldwide technology and the Suzhou basement harmoniously and delivering the products to the points of sale in the world efficiently is a complicated work. Consequently Logitech decided to adopt a diversified supply chain strategy. There are 3 different kinds of consignment patterns: For some heavier products (Ex. amplifiers) they have their own consignment patterns through sea and land transportation. Normal products (Ex. ice) are mainly delivered through sea and land transportation. As to some high-quality products, delivering through air freight is mainly used. Also, all the bulk parts delivered to distribution centers through air/sea freight are assembled locally. Further, to achieve the goal fastening the reaction of the Suzhou manufactory to the orders, Logitech invested a new plant in the Suzhou New District. Compare to the old one, it is bigger, and the arrangement of the product lines is more reasonable. The construction of the new plant is double-decked. Goods are produced in the upper side and stored in the under side. With this construction, raw materials can be delivered to the right place in a shortest distance. Furthermore, Logitech has used a hybrid manufacturing model to increase flexibility, with high-volume products manufactured using a traditional production line, and lower-volume products manufactured in a cell-line by a core team of specialized staff. Logitech also uses a just-in-time system for components, so approximately 60 percent of all components are delivered on a daily basis. To cooperate with this new system, Logitech applied for a Free Trade Zone in the Suzhou New District. The purpose is obviously to enable the suppliers to be closer their product lines. Logitech continues to add whole new categories to their product portfolio and to expand their sales channels, increasing their product demand. Their entire supply chain, from manufacturing in China to distribution in more than 100 countries worldwide, has provided Logitech with a significant competitive advantage. Chapter 3. Suppliers In the cooperation with suppliers, speed –up delivering lowers the pressure of storage. In Suzhou, the superior environmental factor increases the competitive advantage of Logitech largely. With the rapid expansion in the market, Logitech realized that managing the plans of each area centralizedly is getting important. In the past, the data of information and volume-delivery forecasting took long time to collect and couldn’t be updated immediately. Also, due to the seasonal fluctuation of market price, suppliers are hard to progress the forecasting works. However, under the new mechanism, managers of each area and sales teams monitored the actual sales situation together and progressed the forecasting work according to the feedback. The up-to-date forecast would be reported to global supply chain department and shared the data with suppliers. After receiving the forecast, central procurement department would place orders for all areas. By doing so, Logitech not only shared the latest data with suppliers but also benefit by the bulk purchasing. Furthermore, the on-line sharing movement with suppliers and ODM enabled Logitech’s partners to react from changes immediately. Nevertheless, sharing data by internet isn’t an innovation anymore. The key of success is building a â€Å"Sales and Operation Planning Procedure† and providing the visibility of data by cooperating with suppliers. There are many requirements asked within the contracts from Logitech to suppliers. For example, in most contracts it claims that â€Å"Sharing the obligation together†. When supply and demand changes, it is important to clear the obligation up. After improving this weakness, the formulation of supply and demand becomes 75% faster than before. The reflection to customers is also enhanced. In 2006, selling mice in supermarket is one of the developed trends. This movement was decided by consumer behavior. From the consumer behavior aspect, convenience and easy to reach become main reasons for consumers to purchase the IT products. Selling channels is diversified. Besides hypermarkets, Logitech set up direct stores to display and sell products. Chapter 4. Logistics strategy The OEM, Logitech mice and web cameras are produced in Suzhou, China and sold in U. S. Joy sticks are produced by ODM and sold in Europe. In NorthAmerica and Europe, Logitech set up regional logistics centers in Memphis and Amsterdam. Doing most of its manufacturing in China, Logitech uses a variety of solutions to handle its logistics needs. They serve customers worldwide in U. S. , Latin America, Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Oceania. Vision into its network comes from an Oracle system under which Logitech runs. For improving customers’ satisfaction further, Logitech has adopted Just-in-time system. The requirement of this ability is to rebuild the information system between Logitech and logistics companies in order to clear off the obstacles of the speed-up. However, adopting Just-in-time system didn’t sacrifice the profit. Presently, the turnover rate of the stocks yearly reaches 5-6 times, more than previous record 3 times. This achievement was reached from the optimization of the logistics link. First, Logitech evaluated its transportation system. Consider saving the cost, Logitech delivered its products from China across globe through sea transportation which ships merely start from Hong Kong. In the past, the shipping contracts between Logitech and shipping companies were signed as long-term corporations. From 2003 Logitech signed and negotiated its shipping contracts with regional shipping companies annually. Through the regularly negotiations, Logitech can assure its encasement cost in advance. When facing the fluctuation of global oil price, Logitech can still hold a stable transportation cost. Also, because that Logitech has huge amount of products need to be delivered across globe every year, they always can bargain and get most favorable price from logistics companies. Besides, Logitech delivered some parts to the sales areas in advance and put the last assembling work of some particular products, for example, web camera at the sales areas. These doings have enhanced the flexibility of the supply chain. Due to the improved efficiency of the transportation system, it is not necessary for Logitech to set up manufactories in some high-cost areas, like North America and Europe. Although having considered setting up manufactories in Mexico and Hungary because of the lower transportation cost, Logitech found considering from the aspect of total cost, the manufacturing cost in China is still half of those countries. From the chart below, a Logitech mouse is sold at $40 in U. S. 8% (20%) was taken by Logitech as corporate costs and profit. Global distributors and retailers take $15 (37. %), and, suppliers take $14 (35%). The rest $3 (7. 5%) is belong to China. This $3 includes salary, power, transportation, and management costs (JRJ. com 2008) A ELEMENTS OF THE VALUE CHAIN B COSTS IN VALUE CHAIN AB Assembly in China$3 Parts from suppliers for China$14 Corporate costs + profit$8 Global distributors and retailers$15 Total costs$40 Percentage of retail 100% In Tennnesse, America, Hungary, an d the Netherlands, Logitech has also owned warehousing business. In Hungary, Flextronics and DHL have been employed and taken charge of final assembling and managing warehouses. The agreements that Logitech and these logistics companies made have been re-signed through inviting tenders quarterly. Therefore, these logistics partners would provide the best service to keep this business relationship. However, the managers of warehousing business are assigned by Logitech. This method bases on two considerations: First, it costs too much to outsource logistics suppliers, like UPS or DHL to progress everything. Second, with its own professional experiences Logitech can also reduce the cost of total warehousing management. Further, Logitech sell products on-line by E-Commerce Catalogers and have an OEM channel as well (Logitech 2008). The underlying platform supporting Logitech’s channel and supply chain work is a forecasting solution from Click Commerce Inc. Their sales people do a bottom-up forecast, so Logitech can command the detail and holistic information. Among other benefits, channel forecasting allows Logitech to tie its sales demand to supply chain activities in order to shrink inventory (Technology 2003). In order to occupy Chinese market, Logitech has created more and more hannels gradually. In 2007, Zarva and Logitech built a cooperative relationship. Zarva became the whole authorized distributor in China. The content of the cooperation is simple. Logitech expects to spread, market and sell Logitech’s products through national distribution coverage. In the same time, Logitech’s original authorized distributors, like China Digi have superior channel coverages. Therefor e, other mouse manufacturers are hard to compete with Logitech in China (ciw. com 2007). Chapter 5. SWOT Analysis Logitech has just seen its 30th consecutive quarter of double digit growth. This growth, however, could be stunted by increasing competition from Microsoft, its biggest competitor in the mice and keyboards market. StrengthsWeaknesses Strong financial performance High returns Manufacturing capabilities Strong research and developmentDeclining operating margins Dependence on retail segment OpportunitiesThreats Non-PC platforms Growth of computer industry Emerging markets Growing Indian console marketsCompetition from Microsoft Low barrier for entry into core market Counterfeit goods Short product life cycles (More detail information is put in appendix. Chapter 6. Conclusion and recommendations Logitech manages a complicated supply chain with a expanding product lines. For them, here are some recommendations. 1. Make the supply chain more flexible; in order to assure it can expand with the increase of the product lines. In some cases, this would involve the balance between internal manufacturing and outsourcing. 2. Draw the base of the stock turnover period by comparing other companies who have same mode of operating business manufacture products at some particular areas and sell to the whole world. 3. Centralize the management of information forecasting and procurement to harvest from batch discount and simplify the purchasing procedure. By doing this better demand formulation and storage reinforcement plan could be formed. Also, it can diminish storage and reduce the ambiguous issue of responsibilities. 4. Go shares the responsibility with the suppliers; do NOT absorb all the logistics costs alone, as well as do NOT fall into the trap of long-term contracts. Long-term contract would hold you back on choosing lower-cost substitute projects. Shipping agreements should be negotiated every one year. 5. Although costs can be saved by product design and product package, product design should follow the collocation of the supply chain to enable them easier to be packaged and transported. This issue always ignored by most of the companies. 6. Keep updating the information system and evaluate it frequently. It would assure the IT system will not become the obstacle to grow. Chapter 7. References PriceGrabber. com 2007 LOGITECH NOISE CANCELING HEADPHONES [online], http://www. tweaknews. net/reviews/logitech_noise_canceling_headphones/ [Assessed in Apr. 09 2008] Logitech International SA 2008 [online] http://ir. ogitech. com/releasedetail. cfm? ReleaseID=174502 [Assessed in Apr. 09 2008] Datamonitor 2007 [online] http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdf? vid=1=109=3a191d7a-7e0d-4d0b-ba85-2483ea127fc1%40sessionmgr104 [Assessed in APR. 09 2008] JRJ. com 2006 [online] http://finance. jrj. com/news/2006-12-05/000001829203. html [Assessed in Apr. 09 2008] Ciw. com 2007 [online] http://www. ciw. co m. cn/ciwepaper/qudao/20071105101319. shtml [Assessed in Apr. 09 2008] Technology 2003 [online] http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdf? vid=1=108=6644df7a-bfd5-4115-858f-8582b47fc1e7%40sessionmgr109 [Assessed in Apr. 09 2008]

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Improving Studying and Learning Techniques

Improving Studying and Learning Techniques Free Online Research Papers Homework has been a part of student’s lives since the beginning of formal schooling in the United States. The practice, however, has sometimes been accepted and other times rejected by both educators and parents. These views have surfaced because homework can have both positive and negative effects on a child’s learning, along with their attitude toward school (Boers, 1995). At different points throughout history, radically different viewpoints have prevailed. Many different passions have arisen and extreme positions have always been customary. In the early 1800s, much of the United States was an agricultural society, so the school year was short and homework was of little significance (Checkley, 1997). Working for the family took priority so there was little time for homework because children had numerous chores to complete. Most students left school after the sixth grade. High school homework was demanding but uncontroversial. Homework was generally discouraged by parents, because they were concerned with the work getting done. After the Industrial Revolution, families started moving to large cities and becoming more urbanized. This was a period in time when education was growing and developing and many new schools were built. It was during the late nineteenth century that Americans first started to debate the pros and cons of homework (1997). Two court cases relating to homework complaints took place in Texas and Mississippi in 1887 and 1895 respectively (Gill, 2001). Over the course of the twentieth century, sparks flew regularly whenever professionals, politicians, and parents addressed the topic of homework in schools. In the early 1900’s, Edward Bok addressed concerns of the value of homework, suggesting that no homework be assigned to anyone under the age of 15, while also proposing that children 15 and older should have one hour per night (Kralovec Buell, 2000). â€Å"Ladies Home Journal† led a crusade against homework, enlisting doctors and parents that said it was damaging to children’s health. Various school districts passed anti-homework regulations. In 1901, California legislature passed a law abolishing homework in grades kindergarten through eighth grade and limiting it in high school (2000). In the 1920s, the progressive education movement began to ask more questions about the structure of teaching. Supporters of this movement viewed learning as an active process of problem solving. Anti-homework attitudes were commonly central components of this movement (Boers, 1995). This was far different from the philosophy that claimed children were passive, blank slates that needed to be imprinted with information. During the 1930s, there were plenty of debates and discussions on the topic of homework. Several different publications on the topic of homework abounded in education journals and popular periodicals. In addition, the Society of the Abolition of Homework was established (Checkley, 1997). One of their main arguments was the health concerns that were a result of doing homework. They argued that homework damaged the physical, emotional, and mental health of children (1997). Their reasoning was that homework reduced the amount of time they had to play outside and get fresh air, caused eye strain, and triggered a lack of sleep. This attitude came to the forefront throughout the 1930s, when labor unions were lobbying for workplace reforms as well. During times like these, when economic, political, or cultural crises take place, issues in education took center stage. Homework was branded as unhealthy for children (1997). Many schools started to require that any extra work was to be done at school under teacher supervision. In 1941, psychologist Henry Otto said, â€Å"The benefits of assigned homework are too small to counterbalance the disadvantages† (Cooper, 1996). During this time, homework was one of the most contested school practices. It provided parents with a regular outlet to criticize or praise teachers, and to express strong views about what went on at school. In 1948, a national survey showed the median amount of time spent on homework by high school students was between three and four hours per week (Gill, 2001). The educational debate then started to shift from abolishing homework to making it more creative and individualized. In response to Russia’s launching of the space satellite Sputnik in 1957, the pendulum started to swing again. Concerns arose that American students were not keeping up with those in Russia. The progressive education movement came under attack, charged with being irrational and insufficiently rigorous (Checkley, 1997). A fifty year trend toward less homework came to an abrupt halt. Due to the increasing pressure to stay ahead in the Cold War, a cry came out for more and better education in math and science, and as a result, both educators and parents called for more homework. The National Defense Education Act supported this effort and continued to place a high value on homework (1997). For the first half of the century, most educational scholars were sharply critical of teachers’ reliance on heavy, repetitive, memory-driven homework assignments. Cooper (1997) stated that up until the 1950s, homework was widely viewed as a sin against childhood. Parents were far more supportive of homework than academic experts during this time. In all regions of the United States, parents encouraged substantial homework for their children, not only to improve their academic performance, but also to build character, train work habits, fill otherwise idle time, and provide a concrete starting point for parent-teacher communication. By the 1960s, homework was seen as one contributing factor to academic achievement. However, in 1966, the National Education Association did suggest some limits in the amounts of homework given (Gill, 2000). Educators and parents worried that homework was swarming out social experiences, outdoor exercise, and creative extracurricular activities. They recommended no homework for early elementary grades, no more than one hour per day, four days per week for the upper elementary grades, and one and a half hours per night for high school students (2000). During the 1970s, a ‘Back to Basics’ theme prevailed. Teachers were expected to focus on the core subjects of reading, writing, and arithmetic. A Gallup poll in 1978 showed that 72% of Americans thought that schools could be improved by assigning more homework (Kralovec Buell, 2000). In the 1980s, â€Å"A Nation at Risk† was published, which disapproved of a ‘rising tide of mediocrity’ in American schools. This report claimed that American students were not studying the right subjects, were not working hard enough, and were not learning enough. Their schools suffered from slack and uneven standards. Many of their teachers were ill-prepared (Gill, 2001). It declared that much of what troubled the country’s economy could be attributed to the inadequacies of the schools. They stressed that the need for more homework and a longer school day would be critical to improving these issues. As a result, schools began to vie with one another to require more and more homework at an earlier age. In 1986, the United States Department of Education published a pamphlet called â€Å"What Works,† and it concluded that homework did, in fact, work. This was also the time period when the â€Å"academic excellence† movement began. Even though researcher Harris Cooper reported in 1989 that his extensive studies suggested that the amount of homework done in the elementary grades had little or no effect on later academic achievement, policymakers maintained the significance of homework, and encouraged educators to increase the amounts given (Cooper, 1994). During these years, comparisons to educational approaches, school hours, and the amount of homework assigned by other countries also became prevalent. During the 80s and 90s, homework was hailed as inherently good by educators, politicians, and the general public from all points on the ideological spectrum. Beginning in the 1990s, it started to become commonplace for school districts to adopt policies requiring homework, even in the earlier grades (Checkley, 1997). In 1998, a national survey showed that the amount of homework given to elementary school students had dramatically increased from the amount given in 1978 (Gill, 2001). In recent years, homework has been given in greater quantities than in the past, partly due to rising academic standards, difficulty in getting into top colleges, and the challenging job market that faces graduates today (Cooper Lindsay, 1998). The resources that are available to students who need support with their homework are growing. There are homework hotlines, and special homework tutors and programs that are offered in learning centers. In addition, there are numerous internet websites that offer support, and many schools’ after school programs have set a time aside for the kids to work on homework with supervision. Homework, defined as â€Å"tasks assigned to students by school teachers that are meant to be performed during non-school hours,† is a traditional teaching strategy (Cholden, 1998). Homework assignments generally have different purposes. The most common purpose is to have students practice material already learned in class. Practice homework is meant to reinforce learning and help the student master specific skills. Preparation homework introduces material that will be presented in a future lesson. These assignments aim to help students learn new material so they will be better prepared when it is covered in class. Extension homework asks students to apply skills they already have to new situations, while integration homework requires the student to apply many different skills to a single task, such as reports, projects, and other creative assignments (1998). From an educator’s point of view, assigning homework can serve many different educational needs. It can be used to establish sound study habits, further intellectual discipline, ease time constraints for the amount of subject material that needs to be covered in class, as well as supplement and reinforce work that is done in school. Many parents and educators agree that homework can additionally benefit children in more general ways as well. Carol Huntsinger, a professor of education and psychology at the College of Lake County, conducted a four-year study of 80 families relating to homework given in the preschool and primary grades reaping long-term benefits. It showed that children who did considerable homework were more academically competent than and as psychologically well adjusted as children who did little or no homework in the early grades (McCarthy, 2006). It appeared from Huntsinger’s study that children did, in fact, benefit from more practice on basic s kills outside of school. She also found that when she asked 585 kids in grades 4 through 12 if they felt they had too much homework, 67% of them said no, that they had just enough (2006). Homework can promote positive student traits, such as independence, initiative, and responsibility, while also helping with time management skills and perseverance. Furthermore, completing schoolwork at home can teach students that learning can take place anywhere, not solely in the classroom. Homework has also been known to bring home and school closer together. Parent involvement can be helpful in speeding up a child’s learning, while also enhancing the parents’ appreciation of education. Homework can be the outlet for parents to express positive attitudes about the value of success in school. Overall, homework can be an effective way for students to improve their learning, and for parents to be made aware of what their student is learning and how well their child is doing in school. Yet because so many factors influence the impact of homework achievement, expectations for homework’s outcomes, especially in the earlier grades, must be realistic. If not properly assigned and monitored, homework can also have negative effects on children and families. Homework can lead to boredom with schoolwork, since all activities can only remain interesting for so long. It can prevent children from taking part in leisure-time and community activities which also teach important life skills. There are even studies out that suggest the increasing amounts of homework are leading to childhood obesity (Bennett Kalish, 2006). These reviews say that the reason children are not getting outside to play and exercise as often is because of the burden of too much homework. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons made an announcement in 1998 that high school students are suffering an epidemic of back, neck, and shoulder injuries due to all of the books they have to lug around in their backpacks (2006). Homework also has the possibility of leading to undesirable character traits such as cheating, either through the copying of assignments or re ceiving help that goes beyond tutoring. Moreover, giving assignments to complete at home can cause poor attitudes in children toward school and learning. Parents can become too involved in the homework process as well, thus interfering with their child’s learning. Parents may confuse their children if the teaching techniques they use differ from those used in the classroom. Their involvement may also hinder student learning if they complete tasks that the child is capable of completing alone. At times, increased homework loads can also aggravate tensions within the family. A parent’s attitude can have a direct effect on their children’s attitude toward school and homework (Cooper, 1994). Others argue that homework can accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from middle or high-class homes (Kohn, 2006). Gerald LeTendre, professor of education at Penn State, is convinced that teachers are misusing homework as a means for improving test scores (Kohn, 2006). He believes that they should be concentrating more on their instructional strategies and methods, rather than giving extra homework to boost academic test scores. LeTendre stated, â€Å"Undue focus on homework as a national quick-fix, rather than a focus on issues of instructional quality and equity of access to opportunity to learn, may lead our country into wasted expenditures of time and energy† (2006). Teachers may feel pressured to give more homework in order to prepare students for standardized testing, which often carries a heavy weight with administrators. Teachers also feel the frustrations that come with homework, as many students repeatedly neglect to turn in their assignments. Constant reminding, reprimanding, taking away privileges, and making phone calls home are superfluous responsibilities for the teacher when assigning the work. The teacher may end up becoming even more upset and disheartened as the cycle continues, knowing that the students’ grades may drop as a result of their irresponsibility. The issue for educators and parents alike is not which list of effects, the positive or negative, is correct. To a degree, both are. It is the responsibility of parents and teachers to maximize the benefits that are possible, while minimizing the costs. Determining the value of homework depends on the application of knowledge an individual has about the subject. There is very little research on how homework specifically relates to student achievement. Although there are many mixed feelings about homework’s effectiveness, a large majority of parents, students, and teachers agree that homework develops students’ character in a positive way (Kohn, 2006). Harris Cooper (1996), a University of Missouri psychology professor who has studied homework’s effects on test scores, has found that â€Å"there is no evidence that any amount of homework improves the academic performance of elementary school students.† When looking at the National Assessment of Educational Progress in 2000, fourth graders who did no homework scored the same as those who studied for 30 minutes each night (Cooper Lindsay, 1998). Eighth grade students’ scores were slightly higher for the kids who did between 15 and 45 minutes of homework per night opposed to those that did less. High school students’ scores were similar throughout the group; regardless of how much homework they reported doing. Cooper admits that he has seen a relationship between the time students spend on homework and their achievement, but not a considerable amount. He found that in high school, the correlation between homework and academic success is much higher than in the lower grades (1998). Cooper stated, â€Å"Homework has benefits that go well beyond what is going on in school, and for that reason, I believe it will continue to be an integral part of our educational system for quite some time† (1998). In today’s modern world, an old-fashioned approach to homework will not work. Homework has to be relevant to the lives of children and a little creativity and careful planning on the teacher’s part will go a long way. An appropriate purpose for homework would be to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote healthy study skills, apply new concepts, involve students, and develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. Homework should be seen as any activity where learning is extended outside of school. Assignments that are interactive, and require students to discuss the subject matter with someone else can be beneficial. This would include activities that children can do with their parents, older siblings, or fellow classmates. Teachers should try to give assignments that are self-explanatory and make sure the directions are clear before leaving the classroom. Effective homework also appeals to many different learning styles, so that students do not get bored with the monotony of the same types of assignments. In order for homework to be the most valuable, it must be meaningfully planned, sufficiently evaluated, and the assignments must incorporate some student choice, variety, and encourage creativity. The recommended time for returning graded schoolwork in order for it to be meaningful is no longer than 3 days. However, the sooner a student receives feedback, the more significant it becomes. (Boers, 1995). Overall, researchers have been far from unanimous in their assessments of the strengths and weaknesses of homework as an instructional technique. Nonetheless, experts agree that homework is a good way to review, reinforce, and practice what has been taught. Although homework cannot be linked to improving test scores or advancing academic achievement, it is generally considered useful in building valuable character traits in students by educators and parents alike. References Bennett, S. Kalish, N. (2006). The case against homework: How homework is hurting our children and what we can do about it. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Company. Boers, D. (1995). Happy Classrooms. Boston, MA: PWS Publishing Company. Checkley, K. (1997). Homework: A new look at an age-old practice. Education Update. 39, 1, 5-6, 8. Cholden, H. (1998). The homework handbook. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Cooper, H. M. (1994). The battle over homework. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Cooper, H. M. (1996). Homework for all in moderation. Educational Leadership. 81, 34-38. Cooper, H. M., Lindsay, J. (1998). Relationships among attitudes about homework, amount of homework assigned and completed, and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. 90, 2-9. Gill, B. (2001, May 21). The condition of education. Department of Education Update, 33, 8-12. Kohn, A. (2006). The homework myth. Cambridge, MA: De Capo Lifelong Books. Kohn, A. (2006, September). Abusing research: The study of homework and other examples. Retrieved September 3, 2007, from Alfie Kohn Web site: Kralovec, E., Buell, J. (2000). The end of homework. Boston: Beacon Press. McCarthy, K. (2006). How important is homework? Retrieved September 2, 2007, from Web site: Research Papers on Improving Studying and Learning TechniquesStandardized TestingThe Spring and AutumnPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyHip-Hop is ArtInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married Males19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever Product

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Memory from the past ,Going somewhere you have not been before Essay

Memory from the past ,Going somewhere you have not been before - Essay Example Moreover, I knew I had to part with some little package of money for my mum and other family members; not that they would ask for it but because the Nigerian culture accepts and embraces such acts. I had booked a flight a fortnight earlier, and the procedure was not going to be long. I therefore, hired a taxi to the airport hoping to travel the same night. To my expectation, the flight authorities never disappointed me. We left the airport in a span of an hour. Within another few hours, we were at the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport. We walked home happily with my mum who had been waiting at the airport. The life at home was full of fantasy. I enjoyed my favorite traditional dishes that I had missed so much. In addition, I met most of my friends that I had studied with in the local primary school. Each day was the same as the other, full of happiness, laughter and domestic chores. However, I was only to spend two weeks there in order to catch up with Paralympics, my favorite game in the Olympics. I therefore, travelled back to London. I had never attended any Olympics ceremony before so you can imagine how appealing it was going to be to me. However, I developed an interest in the leading international sports event in the year 2004 when it was held in Athens, Greece. Now here was the London Olympics 2012. I was going to watch nothing else but Paralympics. My favorite participant has always been the Briton, David Weir, and I was going to witness his victory. The 33- year old, known to many as the "Weirwolf of London", must have trained himself to gallop so well. He ended up winning four gold medals in the wheelchair marathon. I watched the 5000 meters race, which was his last race in the participation. He dominated the better part of the race battling it out with Switzerland’s Marcel Hug. It was unbelievable how he easily won the race, clinching the gold medal. Weir when being interviewed